Lucescu signed a two-year contract with the option for a one-year renewal.
Speaking at the signing ceremony, Lucescu said that the important duty of serving Turkish football rested on his shoulders.
Lucescu added he would request footballer Arda Turan to play for the Turkish national football team again.
"The team needs him and he needs the team," he said.
Turan, who is playing for Barcelona, had announced his retirement from the national team on June 6, in the wake of his assault on a journalist.
Turkish Football Federation Chairman Yildirim Demiroren said he is honored to sign a manager who has won 35 cups in his career.
Lucescu has previously coached Turkish clubs Galatasaray and Besiktas.
He will succeed Fatih Terim, who resigned on July 26.